Demography Prize for Young Researchers 2012/13

The Stuttgart-based Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations (FRFG) and the Intergenerational Foundation (IF) award the biennial Demography Prize, endowed with €10,000 (ten thousand euros), to essayists who address political and demographic themes relevant to the field of intergenerational justice. The prize was initiated and is funded by the Stiftung Apfelbaum.

Through the prize, FRFG and IF aim to promote a discussion of intergenerational justice in society, and, by providing a scientific basis to the debate, establish new perspectives for decision-makers. The call for papers is intended to target young scholars of different disciplines.

For 2012/2013 entries, the awarding consortium calls for papers on the following topic:

“Youth Quotas – The Answer to Changes in Age Demographics?”

Submission Requirements

Submissions will be accepted until 1 July 2013. Late entries with a postmark of 1.07.2013 will also be accepted. Entries should range from 20 to 40 pages in length. All documents required for a submission, including the full call for papers and formal entry requirements, are obtainable by sending an email to Antony Mason at: Since we are organising a symposium in autumn 2013, we also kindly ask you to send a short biography (1 paragraph), since we are looking for possible speakers.

Target Group

The Demography Prize is primarily aimed at young researchers (students, PhD students and postgraduates up to 35 years). You are always welcome to work in a team.

The following text will provide some first ideas for a submission:

Demographic change in many developed and developing countries means an ageing population. In the UK in 2050, government statisticians predict that there will be 2.5 times as many people aged 85 and over as there are today. The number of people aged between 16 and 64 is predicted to fall from 65 per cent to 59 per cent. Similar trends have been observed throughout Europe.

An ageing population has a number of significant intergenerational implications for voter power and political representation. Is it possible that youth will find it increasingly difficult to exercise power through the ballot box? Will our democracies become gerontocracies?

One way to counterbalance the trend and ensure the young do not become sidelined could be the introduction of youth quotas.

Although submissions can treat both, there is a difference between “youth quotas” and “youth representation in decision-making”. While the first stipulates that a certain percentage of young people must be included in a panel or body, the second generally prescribes one seat for young people. Above all, the latter applies to committees, panels and bodies in which all societal groups are represented.

A list of sectors in which the introduction of youth quotas might be envisaged could include:

  • Parliaments and local government
  • Party panels and bodies
  • Advisory boards for businesses, media companies, trade unions

The introduction of youth quotas could have the consequence of reenergising internal party structures. Political parties could increase their attractiveness to young people, who may be more inclined to try to climb the party ranks if a quota system makes entry-level access more readily available. In the UK, young people are recruited through youth groups such as Conservative Future and Young Labour, but are more concrete participatory mechanisms required to increase youth participation in the main party structures themselves?

Many interdisciplinary questions are raised in the context of the youth quotas debate: for political scientists it may be interesting to examine whether democratic principles would be violated when young representatives are voted into a parliament, even if they are clearly less popular than their older opponents. And would quota regulation ensure that young people have sufficient power to influence political decision-making?

From a legal point of view, it should be considered whether the implementation of youth quotas is consistent with national and European legal principles. Are there any examples from, for example, the implementation of quotas for women and ethnic groups that demonstrate the potential legal challenges of implementing youth quotas?

With regards to philosophy, it might be interesting to investigate whether it is necessary for parliaments to reflect the demographic make-up of societies to be just. Is the implementation of youth quotas a fair method to ensure that young people are represented?

Finally, sociologists could examine youth quotas in the context of the controversial subject of “affirmative action”. This policy may address the problem statistically, but would young people in powerful societal positions be taken seriously? Could the promotion of youth quotas initiate an important societal change that benefits and empowers young people?

Many questions of justice are raised in the context of this debate: for example, is it necessary for a parliament to reflect the demographic make-up of society to be just?

Recommended Literature

Alemann, Ulrich von, Martin Morlok and Thelse Godewerth (2006): Jugend und Politik. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen politischer Beteiligung der Jugend. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

Baltrunaite, Audinga, Piera Bello, Alessandra Casarico and Paola Profeta (2012): “Gender Quotas and the Quality of Politicians”, CESifo working paper No. 3734, Munich: University, Centre for Economic Studies. Available online:

Bengtson, Vern L. (1993): “Is the ‘Contract Across Generations’ Changing? Effects of Population Aging on Obligations and Expectations Across Age Groups”, in: Vern L. Bengtson and W. Andrew Achenbaum (eds): The Changing Contract Across Generations. New York: de Gruyter, pp. 3-24.

Binstock, Robert H., and J. Quadagno (eds) (2001): “Aging and politics”, in: “Older people and voting participation: Past and future”, in: Robert H. Binstock and Linda K. George (eds): Handbook of aging and the social sciences, 5th edn. San Diego: Academic Press, pp.333-51.

Castles, Francis G. (2008): “What welfare states do: A disaggregated expenditure approach”, in: Journal of Social Polic, 38 (1), pp.45-62.

Dahlerup, Drude (2003): “Quotas are Changing the History of Women. The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences”. Available online:

Dahlerup, Drude, and Lenita Freidenvall (2005): “Quotas as a ‘fast track’ to equal representation for women. Why Scandinavia is no longer the model”, in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7/1, pp. 26-48.

Disney, Richard (2007): “Population ageing and the size of the welfare state: Is there a puzzle to explain?” in: European Journal of Political Economy, 23(2): pp. 542-553.

Donovan, Barbara (2007): “ ‘Minority’ Representation in Germany”, in: German Politics, 16/4, pp. 455-80.

Engelstad, Fredrik (2012): Firms, Boards and Gender Quotas: Comparative Perspectives. Bingley: Emerald Group.

Esping-Andersen, Gosta, and Sebastian Sarasa (2002): “The generational conflict reconsidered”, in:  Journal of European Social Policy, 12 (1), pp. 5-21.

Faulkner, Kathryn M. (2009): “Presentation and Representation. Youth participation in ongoing public decision-making projects”, in: Childhood, 16/1, pp. 89-104.

Gabriel, Jeus-Peter (1988): “Quotenregelung – nur ein verfassungsrechtliches Problem?”, in: Gegenwartskunde, 37/4, pp. 501-509.

Hanley, Seán (2012): “Explaining the Success of Pensioners‘ Parties: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 31 polities”, in: Pieter Vanhuysse and Achim Goerres (eds.): Ageing Populations in Post-industrial Democracies. London/New York/ Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 23-53.

Hanley, Seán (2010): “The Emergence of Pensioners’ Parties in Contemporary Europe”, in: Joerg C. Tremmel (ed.): A Young Generation Under Pressure? Financial situation and ‘rush hour of life’ of the cohorts 1970-1985 in a generational comparison. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 225-247.

Kates, Michael (2011): “Justice, Democracy, and Future Generations”, APSA 2011 Annual Meeting Paper. Available online:

Kohli, Martin, Sighard Neckel and Jürgen Wolf (1999): “Krieg der Generationen? Die politische Macht der Älteren” in: Annette Niederfranke, Gerhard Naegele and Eckart Frahm (eds): Funkkolleg Altern, vol. 2. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp.479-514.

Kotlikoff, Laurence J., and Scott Burns (2004): The Coming Generational Storm.Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kotlikoff, Laurence J., and Scott Burns (2012): The Clash of Generations: Saving Ourselves, Our Kids, and Our Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Laux, Annika (2011): Was wünschen sich die Mitglieder von ihren Parteien?, in: Tim Spier et. al (eds): Parteimitglieder in Deutschland. Wiesbaden, pp. 157-76.

Leif, Thomas (2010): Angepasst und ausgebrannt: Die Parteien in der Nachwuchsfalle. Warum Deutschland der Stillstand droht. Munich: Goldmann.

Lynch, Julia (2006): Age in the Welfare State. The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nanivadekar, Medha (2006): “Are Quotas a Good Idea? The Indian Experience with Reserved Seats for Women”, in: Politics & Gender, 02/1, pp. 119-128.

Tepe, Markus / Vanhuysse, Pieter (2012): Accelerating Smaller Cutbacks to Delay Larger Ones? The Politics of Timing and Alarm Bells in OECD Pension Generosity Retrenchment. In: Vanhuysse, Pieter / Goerres, Achim (eds.): Ageing Populations in Post-industrial Democracies.London/New York: Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 127-144.

Vanhuysse, Pieter, and Achim Goerres (2012): “Mapping the Field: Generational Politics and Policies in Ageing Democraties”, in: Pieter Vanhuysse and Achim Goerres (eds.): Ageing Populations in Post-industrial Democracies. London/New York/Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 1-22.

Wiesendahl, Elmar (2001): “Keine Lust mehr auf Parteien. Zur Abwendung Jugendlicher von den Parteien”, in: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, B 10/2001, pp. 7-19.

Wilkoszewski, Harald (2003): Die verdrängte Generation. Politische Parteien und die alternde Gesellschaft in Deutschland. Marburg: Tectum Verlag.

Wilkoszewski, Harald (2010): “Alte versus Junge”, in: Manuela Glaab, Werner Weidenfeld and Michael Weigl  (eds): Deutsche Kontraste 1990-2010. Politik – Wirtschaft – Gesellschaft – Kultur. Frankfurt: Campus, pp. 355-85.